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Denver Parks on Parade

Earlier this month, more than 30 park professionals from the US and Canada were hosted by Denver Parks and Recreation Department in collaboration with City Parks Alliance for a tour of their park system. Eighteen cities were represented, including teams from Los Angeles and Pittsburgh.

Photo courtesy of Hope Gibson

Photo courtesy of Hope Gibson

The Denver team put on a first class demonstration of their expertise in planning, design, construction and programming – from the smallest neighborhood park to Red Rocks Amphitheater, a part of Denver’s mountain parks system – and in every case showing us how a twenty-first century city parks department operates: seamlessly.

From the neighborhood partnerships to the collaboration with their own city departments to alliances with social service providers, arts and music organizations, and other parks programmers, Denver’s parks department uses and leverages all the value that parks offer and its mission can muster. Citywide partners like the Trust for Public Land – perfectly exemplifying its urban mission – and the Colorado Health Foundation are working closely with the department on many of its projects; as are local developers, transit, and bicycling partners. On some of our park visits it was hard to tell who worked for whom; in fact, most simply said they worked for the parks.

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Denver’s New Freedom Park

Each month, City Parks Alliance recognizes a “Frontline Park” to promote and highlight inspiring examples of urban park excellence, innovation, and stewardship across the country. The program also seeks to highlight examples of the challenges facing our cities’ parks as a result of shrinking municipal budgets, land use pressures, and urban neighborhood decay.

NFParkDENintDenver, CO
New Freedom Park was built on a 2-acre vacant lot in an east Denver neighborhood that is home to hundreds of refugees from countries like Burundi, Somalia, Myanmar, Afghanistan, and Nepal, most of whom live in affordable housing communities.  Before the park was built, the weed and broken glass-strewn vacant lot on East 13th Avenue became the site of a small community garden and a gathering place for residents.  There was clearly a need and enthusiasm for the space to be developed into a larger garden and even a park, but the city did not have adequate resources for design and construction, so the Department of Parks & Recreation approached The Trust for Public Land about taking on the project.
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Denver Cracks Down on Fitness Classes in Parks

Parks and open spaces play an integral role in encouraging healthy lifestyles, but in Denver the growing number of outdoor fitness classes has prompted city officials to require that such groups obtain commercial use permits if they want to continue to hold sessions in public parks.

Jack Healy writes in the New York Times:

A skirmish over exercise in the public square seems fitting in a place where people spend more on road bikes than on their cars, and Lycra attire is the unofficial uniform of the weekend.

Officials and neighbors say they are not trying to discourage fitness, but they say the sweaty throngs can be a nuisance, monopolizing sidewalks and fields. They say personal trainers and fitness centers are taking unfair advantage of taxpayer-financed public spaces, rather than paying for gym space.

Trainers and the fitness mavens who assemble in Denver’s parks roll their eyes at those arguments. It’s summertime, they say. And in a country battling obesity and high rates of heart disease and diabetes, they say, governments should be doing everything possible to get people up and moving.

Source: In Health-Conscious Denver, Limits on Group Exercise

Denver’s Civic Center Park: A Gathering Place In Search of a Crowd

Civic Center Park 1Civic Center Park is located in central Denver just south of the Central Business District; it was an idea that originated with Denver mayor Robert Speer in 1904 when he proposed a series of civic improvements based on the City Beautiful ideas he discovered at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition in Chicago.  The 16-acre park has historically been considered the front yard of the city and its gathering place.  But over the years it has become harder to connect this formal space to the daily routines of twenty-first century downtown activity – a problem faced by many cities in rejuvenating their classic old downtown parks.

Civic Center Conservancy Logo 2The Civic Center Conservancy, founded in 2004, is taking on that challenge with its mission of enlivening the area and figuring out ways to connect the growing Golden Triangle neighborhood to the park.

“The challenge for us is to make a link between the park and the growing number of residences downtown. None of the city’s residential districts are located on the park. It’s our job to give these city residents compelling reasons to come to the park and make the connection to this historic district,” says Lindy Eichenbaum, the Conservancy’s Executive Director.


Civic Center Park connects the Colorado State Capitol with the City and County Building via open lawns crisscrossed by symmetrical paved walks, formal flower beds, and numerous memorials. It is ringed with architecturally significant cultural and governmental institutions. In 2012, Civic Center – not just the park – was designated as Denver’s first and only national historic landmark.

It was a fitting end to a process that started with it being named to Colorado’s Endangered Places list in 2007, when almost everything in the park needed repair and restoration.  Over the past few years, about $15 million — mostly from the 2007 Better Denver bond initiative — has been invested in restoring structures in Civic Center.

The park is a jewel in the city but is challenged by its protected historic design and its distance from the commercial city core.  It is also at the center of regular discussion about the value of making changes to the site versus protecting its historic legacy.  All of which make the job of conserving and managing the park a balancing act for the conservancy.

The park, defined by the Denver city government buildings, sits apart from the city’s commercial and residential neighborhoods making it somewhat off the beaten track especially during times when government workers have left their offices for the day.

Civic Center 3The Downtown Denver Partnership created a business improvement district in 1982 that focused on the city’s 16th street pedestrian mall.  In 2002 it expanded its boundaries to serve its current 120-block focus.  Civic Center Park is just outside of the district’s boundaries presumably because the area generates no commercial activity to pay its way and the challenges of keeping it clean, safe and lively are more challenging.

In some ways the challenges facing Denver are not dissimilar from other cities – Sister Cities Park in Philadelphia, where the local BID linked the park to Philadelphia’s

Museum District along the Ben Franklin Parkway – a cultural trail that receives 3 million visitors a year – to attract more users; or, the Downtown Cleveland Alliance’s efforts to unify Public Square where the streets have sliced the big space into four quadrants since 1796, in the name of moving traffic through the city.

But Denver’s Civic Center is more government than private and therein lays the challenge. Even with a new masterplan for the site, private partners and resources must be found outside the park to implement the plan – the goal of which is to transform the landscaped gardens and public spaces around the architecturally significant buildings from something that frames the buildings into something that serves the people who visit the site.

Says Eichenbaum, “We are working on shifting the paradigm about how people think about the center – and engaging them in thinking about the future. Activation is key to safe spaces and we’re focused on how to generate organic activity – more programs and reasons to visit the park on a daily basis.”

Moving Ahead

The 2005 Civic Center Park Master Plan identified the Civic Center Conservancy as “the primary private non-profit fundraising arm for [Civic Center] rehabilitation as well as new construction projects.”  A 2006 cooperative agreement between the City and County of Denver and the Civic Center Conservancy officially charged the Conservancy with raising the funds necessary to implement the Master Plan’s priorities around infrastructure improvements, amenities, expanded programming and enhanced connectivity.  With Civic Center’s centennial birthday approaching, the Conservancy is currently working to translate the Master Plan into a forthcoming Centennial Campaign.

Recently, City and County officials have proposed changes to make the area more accessible to the downtown population in the north and the museums towards the south. Some of these changes included adding newer pedestrian crossings, bus areas and kiosks.

The area has also seen a lot of new civic development in the last ten years, including a new home for the Denver Post. Voters in 2004 approved a new Denver Justice Center, two blocks away from Civic Center Park; and in 2006 a major addition to the Denver Art Museum which also sits in Civic Center.

“The leadership for the conservancy is a group of city leaders who are passionate about the downtown and inspired by what is going on in other cities around the country, including learning from New York City’s experience with park partnerships.  Collectively they understand the connection between place-making and healthy downtowns,” says Eichenbaum.

The conservancy receives no funding from the city.  Private donors put up start-up funds for the conservancy and many of them continue to support the organization.  A three-year pilot project – a partnership with the Downtown Denver BID to bring some of its clean and safe programs to the park – ended when the Conservancy couldn’t raise the needed funding to support the program.  A limited partnership exists now where the BID supports the conservancy’s goals on a limited basis after big events.  “The funding for a higher level of maintenance was hard to sustain,” says Eichenbaum.

The Value of a Private Partner

The cooperative agreement between the conservancy and the combined city and county of Denver outlines the responsibilities of each including various reporting requirements.  The conservancy focuses on activating the space, engaging the community and raising funds to implement capital projects.  But their primary focus is on programming.

“The Conservancy is not the only organization that produces events in the park; the park has historically been the site for many large festivals – Denver Cinco de Mayo, Pride Fest, and Taste of Colorado,” Eichenbaum says.  “It’s the rest of the days – that’s where the conservancy is focusing its attention.”

They’re focused on smaller scale program series that get people coming to the park on a regular basis and changing perceptions about the park.  That includes managing its homeless population – still at a size that makes many uncomfortable.  “Denver’s decision to concentrate homeless service providers in the downtown area has made the park a destination for the homeless.  It’s their right to be there, but our goal is to balance the needs of the community at large with the homeless users by getting the larger public to use the park as well,” says Eichenbaum.

And they’re working on a $25 million capital campaign to add infrastructure that would support more daily use, e.g., updating the park’s iconic central feature, the Greek theater with improvements that would make it usable for performances; or making improvements to the old library; adding food kiosks and maybe a restaurant.  “You can’t even buy a bottle of water in the park right now,” says Eichenbaum.   “We know that food activates spaces.”

Civic Center 4Given the discussions and debates around the country about the value of private park partners the work in Denver around Civic Center Park being led by the Conservancy makes a strong case for how the private nonprofit sector can bring energy and an entrepreneurial vision with a plan for embracing the park’s historic roots within a twenty-first century context.  They are leading an effort that allows a rethinking of transportation, transit and higher density land uses that can showcase the historic architecture and the original ideas behind the city beautiful movement.

Eichenbaum wants to inform that discussion with a new way of thinking.  “When the conservancy first started there was some confusion and concern about our intentions – even though the park’s master plan had identified the need for a private partner.  Our focus has been as a catalyst and convener for engaging all the agencies and interests whose work touches the park and in building the idea that place-capital – like human capital and business capital – is as important for our park as it is for our downtown.”

KBlahaKathy Blaha writes about parks and other urban green spaces, and the role of public-private partnerships in their development and management. When she’s not writing for the blog, she consults on advancing park projects and sustainable land use solutions.

Park Conservancy Models Part II: Madison Square Park Conservancy and The Civic Center Conservancy

This is part two of a three-part series looking at the histories of six different city park conservancies.  Read part one here.

Madison Square Park Conservancy, Madison Square Park, New York

Jaume Plensa’s Echo sculpture in Madison Square Park, New York. Credit: Tom Giebel (Flickr Feed)

Madison Square Park was officially dedicated in 1847. In 1870, soon after the creation of New York City’s first Department of Public Parks, the 6.2-acre park was re-landscaped with well-defined walkways and open lawns to capture both formal and pastoral elements. In the late 19th century, the neighborhood surrounding Madison Square Park was one of Manhattan’s most elite, flourishing as a bustling commercial district with fashionable residences and hotels.  But by the 1990’s, despite its prominent location and cultural significance, the park had fallen into disrepair with cracked and broken asphalt, eroded lawns, decaying monuments, visual clutter, insufficient lighting, and confusing signage.

In response, the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation asked the City Parks Foundation to take the lead in organizing a revitalization campaign in 1999.  The “Campaign for the New Madison Square Park” led to restoration in 2000-2001 and the creation of a “Friends” group in 2002.

The renovation restored elements of the original 19th century design, and the park now features lush green lawns, colorful flowering shrubs and plants, World’s Fair-style benches, a restored fountain, a contemporary reflecting pool, new gateways, new paving, and ornamental lighting.  Another major accomplishment included the reinstallation of the 1920s-era Eternal Light Star (commemorating the end of World War I) with financial support from ConEdison, New York City Parks and Recreation, and Sentry Lighting.  Additional amenities in the park include six statues/monuments, a playground (with a Playground Associate during the summer), Star of Hope, a temporary outdoor art installation, and the Shake Shack food stand.

The “Friends” group was renamed the Madison Square Park Conservancy in 2004 to move from general advocacy for the park to more long-term care and maintenance. In addition to its annual budget, the Conservancy has raised over $10 million for capital improvements and for a permanent fund to support park maintenance.  (Any surplus revenues from operations go into the capital budget.)  Donor companies have included Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York Life Insurance Company, Credit Suisse First Boston, Rudin Management, and Union Square Hospitality Group.

The Shake Shack in Madison Square Park, financed and built by the Conservancy for $750,000 in 2004 (and operated by a third-party) was an instant success and is one of the highlights of current restaurant concessions in New York City parks.  It usually features long lines of customers waiting for frozen custard, shakes, concretes, Shack burgers, Chicago hotdogs, and “shroom burgers.”

A dense mix of office buildings, retail establishments and restaurants border Madison Square Park.  Restoration has also spurred new residential development, including approximately twenty luxury condominium buildings in the surrounding area over the past five years, with two more coming in 2012-13.  New hotels have also opened in the neighborhood.

A Business Improvement District surrounds Madison Square Park Conservancy, but there is no formal connection to the Conservancy.  There is more business retail than residential development surrounding the park, so visitation counts fluctuate throughout the year.  After two surveys of users last summer, the Conservancy estimates 1.25 million visitors during peak months (May through September).

The Civic Center Conservancy, Civic Center, Denver

Colorado tribute to Veterans Monument and the City and County Building in Civic Center Park, Denver. Credit: Cliff (Flickr Feed)

Civic Center Park fills the grand space between Denver’s two most important civic buildings – Denver’s City and County Building and the Colorado State Capitol. Accented with tree groves, its structures include the Greek Theater and its Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, the Voorhies Memorial and adjacent “Seal Pond,” a historic balustrade wall and historic Carnegie Library turned municipal building. With the Pioneer Monument nearby, the park itself contains three bronze sculptures: “Broncho Buster,” “On the War Trail,” and the Columbus Monument. It has an illustrious history, including designs by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., but in recent decades the 12-acre park was largely empty, lacking amenities, programming, and connectivity. With the City’s operational and capital budgets shrinking, there was a backlog of deferred maintenance.

In response, a group of private citizens passionate about revitalizing Civic Center Park – including Elaine Asarch (founding Conservancy board chair and current board member), Dennis Humphries (architect and recent chair of Denver’s Landmark Preservation Commission), Chris Frampton (current board chair and local real estate developer) and others – founded the Civic Center Conservancy in 2004. “We wanted to reintroduce people to this historic urban oasis and engage the community in its future,” said Conservancy Executive Director Lindy Eichenbaum Lent, who came to the job from the Denver Mayor’s office in 2009.

The Conservancy partners with the City and County of Denver to restore, enhance, and activate Civic Center Park, with efforts focusing on four key areas:  advocacy around design/infrastructure/policy; events and programming to activate the space; marketing and public engagement; and fundraising for capital improvements/activities/initiatives to support Civic Center’s ongoing revitalization.

Some major accomplishments of the Conservancy include advocating for Civic Center’s inclusion in the 2007 Better Denver bond initiative (which voters approved, resulting in almost $9.5 million for restoration), and providing input into the 2009 design guidelines for the park.

In its quest to elevate and sustain Civic Center as the vibrant cultural and community hub its founders envisioned more than a century ago, the Conservancy hosts a variety of arts and cultural programs, including the twice-weekly summer Civic Center EATS Outdoor Café (with 20+ food trucks, bistro-style seating and live music), an annual Independence Eve Celebration (featuring a free Colorado Symphony concert and a fireworks/light display that attracted more than 100,000 people in its second year and was broadcast live throughout Colorado), and a new Bike-In Movie Series on summer evenings. With these new programs, combined with longstanding annual festivals and general traffic resulting from the surrounding cultural and civic attractions, the park attracts over a million visitors a year.


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